不ぞろいな家づくり[Dan Phillips]

Dan Phillips · Builder

Creative houses from reclaimed stuff




Thank you very much. 

写真をお見せしながら 私がどのように家づくりをしているのか お話ししたいと思います
I have a few pictures, and I'll talk a little bit about how I'm able to do what I do. 

これらの建物はすべて 70~80%は再利用された材料でできています
All these houses are built from between 70 and 80 percent recycled material, 

stuff that was headed to the mulcher, the landfill, the burn pile. 

It was all just gone. 

This is the first house I built. 

明かり取りの窓がついた玄関の2枚扉は 埋め立てゴミになるところでした
This double front door here with the three-light transom, that was headed to the landfill. 

Have a little turret there. 

受け材についているボタンは ちょうどここです
And then these buttons on the corbels here -- right there -- 

those are hickory nuts. 

こちらのボタンは 鶏の卵です
And these buttons there -- those are chicken eggs.

まず朝食で卵を食べ 殻に接着剤を塗り色づけして固定します
Of course, first you have breakfast, and then you fill the shell full of Bondo and paint it and nail it up, 

あっという間に 建築の模様ができます
and you have an architectural button in just a fraction of the time.



This is a look at the inside. 

明かり取りの窓があります 目線の高さに窓がついています
You can see the three-light transom there with the eyebrow windows. 

アンティークなものです これもゴミになるところでした
Certainly an architectural antique headed to the landfill -- 

even the lockset is probably worth 200 dollars. 

Everything in the kitchen was salvaged. 

1952年製 オキーフ&メリットのストーブです
There's a 1952 O'Keefe & Merritt stove, 

if you like to cook -- cool stove. 

This is going up into the turret. 

この階段は20ドルで手に入れました 運送料込みの値段です
I got that staircase for 20 dollars, including delivery to my lot.



Then, looking up in the turret, 

出っ張りやへこみ たるみなどがあります
you see there are bulges and pokes and sags and so forth. 

それで人生が台無しになるなら この家には住まない方がいいです
Well, if that ruins your life, well, then, you shouldn't live there.



This is a laundry chute. 

And this right here is a shoe last -- 

アンティークの店にあるような鋳鉄が うちにあったので
those are those cast-iron things you see at antique shops. 

So I had one of those, so I made some low-tech gadgetry, 

靴型の上に足を乗せると 扉がバンと開いて
where you just stomp on the shoe last, and then the door flies open 

and you throw your laundry down. 

And then if you're smart enough, it goes on a basket on top of the washer. 

If not, it goes into the toilet.



2フィートx4フィートの木材から 自作したバスタブです
This is a bathtub I made, made out of scrap two-by-four. 

枠から始めて 接着剤や釘打ちで平らにします
Started with the rim, and then glued and nailed it up into a flat, 

持ち送り積みにしたものをひっくり返して 上に型枠を入れました
corbeled it up and flipped it over, then did the two profiles on this side. 

It's a two-person tub. 

After all, it's not just a question of hygiene, 

but there's a possibility of recreation as well.


こちらの蛇口は オーセージ・オレンジの木でできています
Then, this faucet here is just a piece of Osage orange. 

ペニスのように見えますが まあ浴室ですから
It looks a little phallic, but after all, it's a bathroom.



This is a house based on a Budweiser can. 

ビール缶のようには見えませんが デザインを見れば間違いようがありません
It doesn't look like a can of beer, but the design take-offs are absolutely unmistakable: 

the barley hops design worked up into the eaves, 

缶の赤 白 青 銀の色をそのまま使っています
then the dentil work comes directly off the can's red, white, blue and silver. 

ひさしから下に伸びている受け材は 缶の小さなマークがついています
Then, these corbels going down underneath the eaves are that little design that comes off the can. 

缶をコピー機に乗せて 好きなサイズまでデザインを拡大し続けました
I just put a can on a copier and kept enlarging it until I got the size I want. 

Then, on the can it says, 

''これが有名なバドワイザー 他のビールなんて知らないよ"
"This is the famous Budweiser beer, we know of no other beer, blah, blah, blah." 

So we changed that and put, 

"これが有名なバドワイザーの家 他の家なんて知らないよ"
"This is the famous Budweiser house. We don't know of any other house ..." and so forth and so on. 

これは かんぬきです
This is a deadbolt. 

It's a fence from a 1930s shaper, which is a very angry woodworking machine. 

柵はもらえましたが機械はくれなかったので そこからかんぬきを取り外しました
And they gave me the fence, but they didn't give me the shaper, so we made a deadbolt out of it. 

That'll keep bull elephants out, I promise.

もちろん 凶暴な象なんて周りにはいませんが
And sure enough, we've had no problems with bull elephants.


The shower is intended to simulate a glass of beer. 

We've got bubbles going up there, then suds at the top with lumpy tiles. 

Where do you get lumpy tiles? Well, of course, you don't. 

タイルではなくトイレを沢山もらったので 金槌で解体して ごつごつしたタイルを手に入れました
But I get a lot of toilets, and so you just dispatch a toilet with a hammer, and then you have lumpy tiles. 

この蛇口は ビールの栓です
And then the faucet is a beer tap.



こちらのガラス板は アメリカの中流家庭ならどこにでもあるものと 同じです
Then, this panel of glass is the same panel of glass that occurs in every middle-class front door in America. 

We're getting tired of it. 

It's kind of clichéd now. 

If you put it in the front door, your design fails. 

So don't put it in the front door; put it somewhere else. 

It's a pretty panel of glass. 

玄関に使うと 「他の連中を真似したんだろうが上手く行ってないよ」となります
But if you put it in the front door, people say, "Oh, you're trying to be like those guys, and you didn't make it." 

So don't put it there. 

Then, another bathroom upstairs. 

ここにある照明はアメリカ中流家庭の 玄関にあるものと同じです
This light up here is the same light that occurs in every middle-class foyer in America. 

Don't put it in the foyer. 

シャワーやクローゼットに使うのはいいですが 玄関はダメです
Put it in the shower, or in the closet, but not in the foyer. 

Then, somebody gave me a bidet, so it got a bidet.


この小さな家にある 枝状の部分はオーセージ・オレンジで作られています
This little house here, those branches there are made out of Bois d'arc or Osage orange. 

話している間に 写真がスクロールしていきます
These pictures will keep scrolling as I talk a little bit.


私のような仕事を上手くやるためには 建築業界でどんなものがゴミになるのかを 知らなければなりません
In order to do what I do, you have to understand what causes waste in the building industry. 

Our housing has become a commodity, and I'll talk a little bit about that. 

でも ゴミを生み出す第一の原因は 我々のDNAに組み込まれているのだと思います
But the first cause of waste is probably even buried in our DNA. 

人間は統覚性を持つために 一貫性を保つ必要があります
Human beings have a need for maintaining consistency of the apperceptive mass. 

What does that mean? 

我々が知覚することは全て 以前の同種の知覚と関わりを持つということです
What it means is, for every perception we have, it needs to tally with the one like it before, 

さもなければ継続性がなくなり 私たちは自らを見失ってしまうでしょう
or we don't have continuity, and we become a little bit disoriented. 

So I can show you an object you've never seen before. 

Oh, that's a cell phone. 

But you've never seen this one before. 

構造上の特徴のパターンを 測っています
What you're doing is sizing up the pattern of structural features, 

データバンクに行くと - 携帯電話です
and then you go through your databanks: Cell phone. 

Oh! That's a cell phone. If I took a bite out of it, you'd go, 

「ちょっと待って それは携帯電話じゃなくて 新しくできたチョコレート携帯だよ」

"Wait a second. That's not a cell phone. That's one of those new chocolate cell phones."


そして携帯とチョコレートの間に 新しいカテゴリーが生まれます
You'd have to start a new category, right between cell phones and chocolate.


That's how we process information.


You translate that to the building industry. 

If we have a wall of windowpanes and one pane is cracked, 

「何てこった ひびが入ってる 直さなくちゃ ひび入りのものは捨てて新しいものに換えよう」
we go, "Oh, dear. That's cracked. Let's repair it. Let's take it out and throw it away so nobody can use it and put a new one in." 

Because that's what you do with a cracked pane. 

Never mind that it doesn't affect our lives at all. 

予期されたパターンと構造上の統一性を かき乱すだけなのに
It only rattles that expected pattern and unity of structural features. 

でも もし小さな金槌で 他のすべての窓にひびを入れれば それがパターンになります
However, if we took a small hammer, and we added cracks to all the other windows -- then we have a pattern. 


ゲシュタルト心理学では 部分よりも 全体のパターンを認識することを重視します
Because Gestalt psychology emphasizes recognition of pattern over parts that comprise a pattern. 

だから「おぉ いいね」となるでしょう
We'll go, "Ooh, that's nice." 

So, that serves me every day. 

Repetition creates pattern. 

2種類の反復が100ずつあれば 互いの違いなど無いようなものです
If I have 100 of these, 100 of those, it makes no difference what these and those are. 

くるみから卵 ガラス片 枝に至るまで 繰り返し用いればパターンが生まれます
If I can repeat anything, I have the possibility of a pattern, from hickory nuts and chicken eggs, shards of glass, branches. 

It doesn't make any difference. 

That causes a lot of waste in the building industry.


フリードリッヒ・ニーチェは1885年頃 「悲劇の誕生」という本を書きました
The second cause is, Friedrich Nietzsche, along about 1885, wrote a book titled "The Birth of Tragedy." 

そこで彼は 文化というのは 2種類の視点を揺れ動くものだと書きました
And in there, he said cultures tend to swing between one of two perspectives: 

on the one hand, we have an Apollonian perspective, 

きちんと計画され 理性的で 完璧なものです
which is very crisp and premeditated and intellectualized and perfect. 

On the other end of the spectrum, we have a Dionysian perspective, 

より情熱や直感に重きを置き 有機組織やジェスチャーに寛容です
which is more given to the passions and intuition, tolerant of organic texture and human gesture. 

アポロン的な人が写真を撮ったり 飾ったりする際は
So the way the Apollonian personality takes a picture or hangs a picture is, 

測角器とレーザーの水平計 マイクロメーターの測定器を使うでしょう
they'll get out a transit and a laser level and a micrometer. 

「写真をあと0.03ミリ左に寄せて そこそこ それで完璧だ」
"OK, honey. A thousandth of an inch to the left. That's where we want the picture. Right. Perfect!" 

水平 直角 中心が前提です
Predicated on plumb level, square and centered. 

ディオニュソス的な人が 写真を撮る場合は…
The Dionysian personality takes the picture and goes:


That's the difference. 

私は傷や有機的なプロセスを 重視します -
I feature blemish. I feature organic process. 

Dead center John Dewey. 

Apollonian mindset creates mountains of waste. 

何かが完璧でなかったり 計画されたモデルでなかったりすると
If something isn't perfect, if it doesn't line up with that premeditated model? 

「おっと 傷がある ゴミ箱行きだ これもあれも埋め立てゴミにしろ」

Dumpster. "Oops. Scratch. Dumpster." "Oops" this, "oops" that. Landfill, landfill, landfill.


3つ目に言える事は -
The third thing is arguably -- 

産業革命はルネッサンスの時代に 人道主義の興隆とともに始まり
The Industrial Revolution started in the Renaissance with the rise of humanism, 

then got a little jump start along about the French Revolution. 

By the middle of the 19th century, it's in full flower. 

それまでは手で行っていたことを 代わりにしてくれる 機械や装置が 現れたのです
And we have dumaflaches and gizmos and contraptions that will do anything that we, up to that point, had to do by hand. 

そのため 今では材料も規格化されました
So now we have standardized materials. 

木は2×4.8インチのように規格化された サイズには育ちません
Well, trees don't grow two inches by four inches, eight, ten and twelve feet tall.

We create mountains of waste. 

木はまた 配向性ストランドボードや パーチクル・ボードなどの 建築材料の元にもなります
And they're doing a pretty good job there in the forest, working all the byproduct of their industry -- with OSB and particle board and so forth and so on -- 

でも 使われる際に無駄になるならば 収穫時点で注意を払っても 意味がありません
but it does no good to be responsible at the point of harvest in the forest if consumers are wasting the harvest at the point of consumption. 

And that's what's happening. 

And so if something isn't standard, 

「ああ 反っている ゴミ箱行きだ」
"Oops, dumpster." "Oops" this. "Oops, warped." 

2×4インチの材木を買って真っ直ぐでなければ 返品できます
If you buy a two-by-four and it's not straight, you can take it back. 

「申し訳ございません 真っ直ぐなものをお持ちします」
"Oh, I'm so sorry, sir. We'll get you a straight one." 

Well, I feature all those warped things 

because repetition creates pattern, 

and it's from a Dionysian perspective.


4番目に言えることは 労働が材料よりも途方もなく高価だということです
The fourth thing is labor is disproportionately more expensive than materials. 

Well, that's just a myth. 

And there's a story: Jim Tulles, one of the guys I trained -- I said, 

「ジム 君に骨組みづくりのチームの 主任をやってほしいんだ」
"Jim, it's time now. I got a job for you as a foreman on a framing crew. Time for you to go." 

「ダン 僕にはまだ早いよ」
"Dan, I just don't think I'm ready." 

「そんなことはない あれ 何だか元気がないね」
"Jim, now it's time. You're the down -- oh!" 

So we hired on. 

And he was out there with a tape measure, 

ゴミの山で小口 つまり扉の上に使う 板の材料を探しました -
going through the trash heap, looking for header material, or the board that goes over a door, 

thinking he'd impress his boss -- that's how we taught him to do it. 

The superintendent walked up and said, 

"What are you doing?" 

"Oh, just looking for header material," 

waiting for that kudos. 

「ゴミを漁るために雇ってるんじゃない 仕事に戻れ」と言われ
He said, "I'm not paying you to go through the trash. Get back to work." 

勇敢にも 「もし僕に時給300ドル払っているなら そう言うのもわかるけど いま僕は 1分で5ドル分節約してやってるんだ 計算しろよ」
And Jim had the wherewithal to say, "You know, if you were paying me 300 dollars an hour, I can see how you might say that. But right now, I'm saving you five dollars a minute. Do the math."


「その通りだ これからはまずゴミの山を漁れ」
"Good call, Tulles. From now on, you guys hit this pile first." 

And the irony is that he wasn't very good at math.


時々制御室に行くと 文字盤が多くて混乱します
But once in a while, you get access to the control room, and then you can kind of mess with the dials. 

And that's what happened there.


5番目に言いたいのは 2,500年経っても 我々はまだプラトンの完全体の考え方に影響を受けているということです
The fifth thing is that maybe, after 2,500 years, Plato is still having his way with us in his notion of perfect forms. 

曰く 私たちは頭の中で 自分が望むものを完全に把握していて
He said that we have in our noggin the perfect idea of what we want, 

and we force environmental resources to accommodate that. 

皆が心の中にアメリカンドリームという 完璧な家 -
So we all have in our head the perfect house, the American dream, 

which is a house, the dream house. 

The problem is we can't afford it. 

So we have the American dream look-alike, 

which is a mobile home. 

Now there's a blight on the planet.


家具や車のような 家財の抵当のことです
It's a chattel mortgage, just like furniture, just like a car. 

You write the check, and instantly, it depreciates 30 percent. 

1年後には家財の7割分にしか 保険が効かなくなります
After a year, you can't get insurance on everything you have in it, only on 70 percent. 

Wired with 14-Gauge wire, typically. 

12口径のワイヤにしてくれと頼まないのであれば 悪いことではありません
Nothing wrong with that, unless you ask it to do what 12-Gauge wire's supposed to do, 

and that's what happens. 

It out-gasses formaldehyde -- 

新しくモバイルホームを買う人に ホルムアルデヒドの危険性を 警告する連邦法ができました
so much so that there is a federal law in place to warn new mobile home buyers of the formaldehyde atmosphere danger. 

Are we just being numbingly stupid? 

壁はこんなにも分厚く 構造上は丈夫なのに
The walls are this thick. The whole thing has the structural value of corn.


"So ... I thought Palm Harbor Village was over there." 

「いやー 昨晩風が吹いてね 吹き飛ばされちまったよ」
"No, no. We had a wind last night. It's gone now."


Then when they degrade, what do you do with them?


いまの建築界は アポロン的 プラトン的なモデルを 基礎にしています
Now, all that -- that Apollonian, Platonic model -- is what the building industry is predicated on, 

and there are a number of things that exacerbate that. 

一つには 全てのプロフェッショナルが 商人から販売人 検査人 技術者 建築家に至るまで 皆このように考えています
One is that all the professionals, all the tradesmen, vendors, inspectors, engineers, architects all think like this. 

それは同じモデルを求める 消費者にも言えることです
And then it works its way back to the consumer, who demands the same model. 

It's a self-fulfilling prophecy. We can't get out of it. 

Then here come the marketeers and the advertisers. 

「いけいけ どんどん」
"Woo. Woo-hoo." 

We buy stuff we didn't know we needed. 

私たちがすべきことは 炭酸プルーンジュースの行く末を見ることだけです
All we have to do is look at what one company did with carbonated prune juice. 

How disgusting.


But you know what they did? 

They hooked a metaphor into it and said, "I drink Dr. Pepper ..." 

すぐに何十億リットルも 飲み干すことになります
And pretty soon, we're swilling that stuff by the lake-ful, by the billions of gallons. 

It doesn't even have real prunes! 

Doesn't even keep you regular.


体を悪くします あっという間にだまされます
My oh my, that makes it worse. And we get sucked into that faster than anything.


ジャン・ポール・サルトルは 「実存と無」という本を書きました
Then, a man named Jean-Paul Sartre wrote a book titled "Being and Nothingness." 

It's a pretty quick read. 

1日に8時間読めば 2年ぐらいでざっと読み終わるでしょう
You can snap through it in maybe -- maybe two years, if you read eight hours a day. 


In there, he talked about the divided self. 

人は独りでいる時と誰かといる時で 行動が変わるとサルトルは言います
He said human beings act differently when they know they're alone than when they know somebody else is around. 

私が独りでスパゲッティを食べていたら バクバクと食べ
So if I'm eating spaghetti, and I know I'm alone, I can eat like a backhoe. 

口を服の袖で拭いたり クチャクチャ噛んで音を立てたり 何でも引っかいたりすることもできます
I can wipe my mouth on my sleeve, napkin on the table, chew with my mouth open, make little noises, scratch wherever I want.


But as soon as you walk in, I go, 

"Oops! Lil' spaghetti sauce there." 

ナプキンを膝に乗せ 噛む時は口を閉じ 引っかきもしません
Napkin in my lap, half-bites, chew with my mouth closed, no scratching. 

私は 人はこうあるべきという その人の期待に沿うように 行動しています
Now, what I'm doing is fulfilling your expectations of how I should live my life. 

期待を感じるから それを受け入れ 期待に沿うように生きるのです
I feel that expectation, and so I accommodate it, and I'm living my life according to what you expect me to do. 

That happens in the building industry as well. 

That's why all subdivisions look the same. 

時に我々は 規格化された文化的な期待さえ持ちます
Sometimes, we even have these formalized cultural expectations. 

I'll bet all your shoes match. 

もちろん 皆がそれを受け入れています
Sure enough, we all buy into that ...


ゲート・コミュニティでは 皆が自家所有者協会と同じ 規格化された期待を持ちます
And with gated communities, we have a formalized expectation, with a homeowners' association. 

ナチのように思えることすらある 期待です
Sometimes those guys are Nazis, my oh my. 

That exacerbates and continues this model.


The last thing is gregariousness. 

Human beings are a social species. 

ライオンなどの獣と同じく 集団で手を差し伸べあうことを好みます
We like to hang together in groups, just like wildebeests, just like lions. 

野生の動物はライオンと付き合ったりしません 食べられてしまいますから
Wildebeests don't hang with lions, because lions eat wildebeests. 

Human beings are like that. 

自分が属したいと思う集団がすることと 同じことをします
We do what that group does that we're trying to identify with. 

You see this in junior high a lot. 

子ども達はひと夏の間中 ヘトヘトになるまで働いて デザイナー・ジーンズを 買おうとします
Those kids, they'll work all summer long -- kill themselves -- so that they can afford one pair of designer jeans. 

9月頃に それを履いて外出し
So along about September, they can stride in and go, 

"I'm important today. See? 

見ろよ このジーンズ 触るなよ
Don't touch my designer jeans! 

I see you don't have designer jeans. 

You're not one of the beautiful -- 

See, I'm one of the beautiful people. See my jeans?" 

Right there is reason enough to have uniforms. 

And so that happens in the building industry as well.


マズローの欲望の階段を 少しだけ 変えました
We have confused Maslow's hierarchy of needs, just a little bit. 

一番下は 基本的欲求です
On the bottom tier, we have basic needs: 

避難所や洋服 食料 水 子孫を残すことなど
shelter, clothing, food, water, mating and so forth. 

Second: security. 

Third: relationships. 

四番目はステータスや自尊心 -
Fourth: status, self-esteem -- 

that is, vanity -- 

and we're taking vanity and shoving it down here. 

意味のない 決断をする羽目になり
And so we end up with vain decisions, 

and we can't even afford our mortgage. 

We can't afford to eat anything except beans;


つまり住宅というのは コモディティ化しています
that is, our housing has become a commodity. 

自らの内深くに飛び込み 恐怖を乗り越えて 心を決め 家のコモディティ化を防いで
And it takes a little bit of nerve to dive into those primal, terrifying parts of ourselves and make our own decisions and not make our housing a commodity, 

将来に残せるものとすることは 少しばかり勇気が要ります
but make it something that bubbles up from seminal sources. 

そればかりでなく 何と失敗することもあるのです
That takes a little bit of nerve, and, darn it, once in a while, you fail. 

But that's okay. 

失敗にくじけてしまうようなら これは成し遂げられません
If failure destroys you, then you can't do this. 

I fail all the time, every day, 

and I've had some whopping failures, 

大きなヘマで 皆が知るような 恥ずかしい失敗です
I promise -- big, public, humiliating, embarrassing failures.

Everybody points and laughs, and they say, 

「5回もやってるのにまた失敗だ なんて間抜けなんだ」
"He tried it a fifth time, and it still didn't work! What a moron!" 

Early on, contractors come by and say, 

「ダン 君は愉快なやつだ でもこれは上手く行かないよ なんでこんなことやってるんだ?」
"Dan, you're a cute little bunny, but you know, this just isn't going to work. What don't you do this? Why don't you do that?" 

And your instinct is to say, 

"Well, why don't you suck an egg?"


But you don't say that, 

because they're the guys you're targeting.


And so what we've done -- 

and this isn't just in housing; 

衣服や食料 移動の必要性 エネルギー -
it's in clothing and food and our transportation needs, our energy -- 

we sprawl just a little bit. 

少しでも報道されると 世界中の人々から連絡があります
And when I get a little bit of press, I hear from people all over the world. 

And we may have invented excess, 

廃棄物の問題は 世界中に広がっています
but the problem of waste is worldwide. 

We're in trouble. 

弾薬のベルトを胸に巻き 赤いバンダナをしている訳ではありませんが
And I don't wear ammo belts crisscrossing my chest and a red bandana. 

But we're clearly in trouble. 

我々がすべきことは 自らの本当に原初的なところと つながり直し 決心することです
And what we need to do is reconnect with those really primal parts of ourselves and make some decisions and say, 

「CDをあそこの壁のところに しまいたいんだ どう思う?」
"You know, I think I would like to put CDs across the wall there. What do you think, honey?" 

If it doesn't work, take it down. 

What we need to do is reconnect with who we really are, 

and that's thrilling indeed.


Thank you very much.